DUAL ROLE OF AUTOPHAGY IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE
Autophagy is a self-degradative process that is important for balancing sources of energy at critical times in development and in response to nutrient stress. The induction of autophagy has been shown to have both protective and pathological effects in periodontitis. Autophagy also plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded or aggregated proteins, clearing damaged organelles, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes, as well as eliminating intracellular pathogens. Thus, autophagy is generally thought of as a survival mechanism, although its deregulation has been linked to non-apoptotic cell death. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process essential for cellular homeostasis and human health. Autophagy provides a mechanism for the turnover of cellular organelles and proteins through a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway. It also participates in various biological processes, such as cellular differentiation, cell function, and defense against pathogens. In addition, autophagic dysfunction is associated with multiple diseases such as autoimmune disease, cancer, diabetes, and oral disease. Nowadays research has ascertained the role of autophagy in Periodontal disease, especially its role in the host defence against periodontal disease drivers. A bulk of research has recognized several pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals that can potentially modulate this kind of cell death and serve as useful therapies. However, further research is warranted in order to reach a clinical translation, which could be of help in the discovery of novel host modulation therapies for Periodontal disease.
Keywords: Autophagy, Apoptosis, Micro autophagy, immune response, Periodontitis, Periodontal pathogens, Periapical lesion
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