MICRO BIOLOGY OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE- A REVIEW
Periodontal diseases are inflammatory and destructive diseases of the dentogingival complex associated with specific periodontal pathogens inhabiting periodontal pockets. Periodontal diseases lead to damage of the periodontal tissues supporting the teeth (bone and connective tissue) and affect the quality of life of the affected individuals: poor alimentation, tooth loss, social and financial problems. Although it is generally considered that the disease has multifactorial etiology, data show that some specific Gram-negative microorganisms in the subgingival plaque biofilm play a major role in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia form a consortium in the subgingival biofilm and are regarded as the principal periodontopathogenic bacteria. Other microorganisms that have been implicated as predominant species in the disease process are: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Campylobacter rectus, Peptostreptococcus migros, Eikenella corrodens. In periodontitis, the initiation of the disease is the colonization of the tissues by these pathogenic species. The next step is bacterial invasion or invasion by pathogenic products into the periodontal tissues, interactions of bacteria or their substances with host cells, and this directly/indirectly causes degradation of the periodontium, resulting in tissue destruction.
Keywords: periodontal disease, periodontal pathogens, microbiology.
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