International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research <p><strong>International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research</strong>&nbsp;<strong>(IJMSDR)</strong>&nbsp;is a online and print version cum open-access journal.&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR</strong>&nbsp;serves the world's research and scholarly communities and aims to be one of the largest publishers for professional and scholarly societies.&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR's</strong>&nbsp;journals maintain the highest standards of peer review, with some internationally-recognized editors serving on the editorial boards of&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR's&nbsp;</strong>journals.<strong>IJMSDR</strong>&nbsp;is not only a publisher, but also a hub for Scientists, Academician, and Research Scholars.&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR</strong>&nbsp;is a platform offering excellent resources for different research fields. It connects traditional publishing with the opportunities afforded by new technologies. Through publishing with&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR,</strong>your work can enjoy worldwide reach and you can get a quick response from your colleagues worldwide.&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR</strong>&nbsp;is a world’s most prestigious learned groups and publishers. Our goal is to bring high quality research work. Other than publications of journals &amp; Books, we also provide&nbsp;some subsidiary Products, Tools, Technology and Services like Thesis, Dissertation Project formatting and publishing etc.&nbsp;</p> <p>These&nbsp;scholarly open access medical journals&nbsp;aim to contribute to the progress and application of scientific discoveries, by providing free access to the research information.&nbsp;The published work reaches the general public and the scientific community immediately after publication, thus providing higher citation rates for the author.&nbsp;</p> IJMSDR en-US International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2589-7837 MODIFIED NANCE PALATAL ARCH FOR DEROTATION OF TOOTH- CASE REPORT <p>Rotation of any tooth needs to be corrected in the initial phase of orthodontic mechanotherapy. Derotation of posterior teeth provides space in the arch and also allows the treatment progress. During rotation correction, undesirable forces make an unwanted movement of the adjacent teeth, which increases the duration of treatment. This case report aims to fabricate and introduce the modified Nance palatal arch that easily allows derotation of the tooth without producing undesirable side effect on adjacent teeth.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> modified Nance palatal arch, derotation, rotated premolar</p> Sandhya Jain Anil K. Bunkar Ashok Panika Copyright (c) 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 4 9 10.32553/ijmsdr.v4i9.668 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MDA LEVEL AS A MARKER OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS AND CONTROLS <p>Background: Hypertension is recognized as most common cardiovascular disorder and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is abnormal lipid peroxidation which suggested that oxidative stress is important in the pathogenesis of hypertension.&nbsp; This study aims at understanding the role of oxidative stress in hypertension.</p> <p>Aim of the Work: The objective of this study was to determine the malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with hypertension and healthy controls.</p> <p>Subjects and Methods: Whole study population included 250 hypertensive cases and 250 controls. All individuals included in the study were submitted to: Complete history and physical examinations to evaluate exclusion criteria. Serum MDA was estimated by method of Jean et al using trichloroacetic acid and thiobarbituric acid. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for serum MDA. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS no. 20 and Microsoft excel.</p> <p>Result: There was statistically higher significant increase (p value &lt;0.001) in MDA in hypertensive cases comparison to control groups.</p> <p>Conclusion<strong>:</strong> The role of oxidation mediated tissue damage in generation of hypertension in human. Oxidative stress leads hypertension and other disease like atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Malondialdehyde (MDA), Oxidative stress, Hypertension.</p> Mahesh Kumar B.K. Agrawal Arun Mishra Bhagwan Singh Meena Copyright (c) 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 4 9 10.32553/ijmsdr.v4i9.669 GENE EXPRESSION PATTERN ANALYSIS FOR FORENSIC DIAGNOSIS OF SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH <p>Diagnosis of Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is challenging for forensic experts. In the current scenario, genetic analysis is rapidly gaining interest in forensic science. Previous studies are not only limited to using protein markers. In this regard, analysis of mRNA is also a key feature. Analysing mRNA offers insight into the diseases and mechanisms leading to death. It can also be used for forensic diagnostic purposes. This review article takes the help of this methodology to discuss about those mRNA species that can aid in the process of sudden cardiac death (SCD) diagnosis. These are mRNA encoding Heat Shock Protein (HSP), mRNA encoding Hemoglobin A1/2 &amp; B, mRNA encoding Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDK4), mRNAs encoding Connexin 43 (Cx43) &amp; Zonula occludens-1 (ZO1), mRNA encoding TNNI3, MYL3, TGFB1, MMP9, VEGFA and mRNA expressing Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP).Owing to the difficulty of diagnosing SCD, molecular markers are often developed that can aid in the process. Nowadays, mRNA is showing promising usefulness to supplement the process.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Sudden Cardiac Death, forensic, gene expression</p> Saikat Das Ritwik Ghosh Soumeek Chowdhuri Copyright (c) 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 4 9 10.32553/ijmsdr.v4i9.670 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF HAND HYGIENE AMONG DENTISTS AS A PREVENTION METHOD FROM COVID-19 IN AL QASSIM REGION, KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY. <p>Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of hand washing among dentists in Al Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia.</p> <p>Materials and Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out by use of a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on WHO`s “Five Moments of Hand Hygiene Questionnaire” with a few notable changes.</p> <p>Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used to analyze data. Results were displayed as counts and percentages.</p> <p>Results: The level of knowledge of Hand Hygiene (HH) was found high in 52% and moderate in 37% of the participants, when in the attitude levels the majority of the participants i.e. 88% had high level of attitude and was moderate in 7% of respondents. Level of practices of Hand Hygiene was high in 61%, moderate in 37% and almost none (1.4%) of our participants were found with a low level of practices.</p> <p>Conclusion: The population under study scored high on attitude when compared to practices and knowledge scores were the least. These points to the need for interventions for improving knowledge through regular workshops and continuing education. Since knowledge does not automatically translate into practices, emphasis on HH compliance must be laid.&nbsp; Planned interventions to improve compliance must be multidimensional which considers and includes administrative support, clinic ergonomics and design, timely HH supplies, periodic educational programs, reminders, process surveillance and employee feedback to achieve sustained improvements.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> COVID-19, Dentist, Hand hygiene, Knowledge, Practices.</p> Nader M. Elsayed Marei Mohamed Tharwat Salama Mohammed Ali Habibullah Copyright (c) 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 4 9 10.32553/ijmsdr.v4i9.672 A CASE REPORT OF ELIMINATION OF ALVEOLAR DEFECTS BY SECONDARY BONE GRAFTING. <p>The secondary alveolar bone grafting is an integral component of contemporary rehabilitation of the patients with cleft lip and palate with alveolar defects. Iliac bone graft is frequent secondary graft used in the correction of alveolar defects. There is successful rehabilitation of osseous component post operatively.</p> Charan Teja Vemagiri Damera Srikanth Chandrababu V Siva Ganesh Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 4 9 10.32553/ijmsdr.v4i9.665 ASSESSMENT OF DIFFERENT TREATMENT PATTERNS IN MIGRAINE WITH CO-MORBIDITIES <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To provide effective treatment pattern based on individual patient response, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies, effective patient counseling for obtaining adherence to medication.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A prospective observational study was conducted in outpatient department of neuro care center for a period of six months.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 1000 patients, Female ratio (86.9%) was high in age group 31-50 years (47%).&nbsp; Non-compliance to medication (21.1%) was seen which may be the cause for recurrent migraine and response to migraine treatment. We have taken 2 types of treatment patterns which include FPANR and DPANR. In which, FPANR were 85.1% and DPANR were 14.9%. Statistical analysis was also done based on chi-square test, odd’s ratio, standard deviation. Using chi-square &amp; odd’s ratio statistical analytical methods the values for migraine types were found to be 0.2735 &amp; 0.8849 respectively with 95% confidence interval of value 0.559-1.4. Using chi-square &amp; odd’s ratio statistical analytical methods the values for treatment pattern were found to be 0.1853 &amp; 0.8954 respectively with 95% confidence interval of value 0.54-1.4.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Female ratio was high compared to male and was significantly high in 31-50 years of age which might be due to skipped breakfasts, fasting, hormonal imbalances, stress. Medication adherence was found to be very low which might be one of the major factors for recurrent episodes of migraine &amp; response to migraine treatment. Clinical pharmacist plays an important role in treatment and management of headache disorders. They can also provide insight and patient counselling to help prevent or reduce the risk of medication overuse and educating them on medication adherence, triggering factors, and acute treatment.</p> B. Shravani R. Rasmitha E. Srinivas Rao A. Gouthami Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 4 9 10.32553/ijmsdr.v4i9.673 CORRELATION BETWEEN OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT IN DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY <p>Background: Diabetic Nephropathy is consider as one of the major micro-vascular problems of diabetes mellitus and has become the most general single factor of end stage of kidney disease. It is defined traditionally by kidney morphological and modification like: glomerular hyper filtration, glomerular and kidney hypertrophy, increased urinary albumin excretion (&gt; 300 mg/24 hours), increased GBM (Glomerular Basement Membrane) thickness and mesangial expansion and also accumulation of extracellular proteins comprising laminin, collagens and fibronectin worldwide. Oxidative stress (OS) has been characterized as the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) yielding and the possessive antioxidant defense system.</p> <p>Objective of the study: Correlation between oxidative stress and antioxidant in diabetic nephropathy.</p> <p>Materials and methods: The investigation was conducted on 100 DN subjects of both sex and aged 20 or more and 100 age and sex matched healthy control subjects. MDA, SOD and Catalase of each subject was measured.</p> <p>Results: the present investigation shows that the MDA was elevated significantly and SOD and Catalase level was found to be significantly low in DN individuals as compared to controls. Conclusion: This study concluded that the MDA could be better marker for early recognition of DN.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diabetic nephropathy (DN), MDA, SOD, Catalase<strong>, </strong>Kidney disease</p> Bhagwan Singh Meena B.K. Agarwal Arun Mishra Mahesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2020-09-17 2020-09-17 4 9 10.32553/ijmsdr.v4i9.666 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PERIAPICAL HEALING FOLLOWED BY ENDODONTIC THERAPY IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS VS NON –DIABETES-A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>There is high occurrence of apical periodontitis in diabetes mellitus patients. The healing process of periapical tissue in diabetes is affected by the altered immunity. The aim of the study is to determine the periapical healing followed by endodontic therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus and compare with non-diabetes</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This review was directed as per the PRISMA and JBI guidelines. A total of&nbsp; six articles published over a period of past 15 years were included in qualitative synthesis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Total of 1424 articles were searched out of which 26&nbsp; articles were selected after reading title and abstract. As a next step, full text papers were obtained. However studies in which periapical healing in type II diabetes and non- diabetes were selected. Finally a total of 26 articles were included out of which 20 articles were excluded on basis of insufficient data and 6 articles were selected for final synthesis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Patients with type II diabetes mellitus had slower healing rate compared to non-diabetes patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Type II diabetes mellitus, Non- Diabetes, Root Canal Therapy, Periapical Healing</p> Krishna Prasada .L Amitha Ponnath Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2020-09-17 2020-09-17 4 9 10.32553/ijmsdr.v4i9.667 UNILATERAL LOWER LIMB PHOCOMELIA DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: ETHICAL DILEMMA FROM AN OBSTETRICIAN’S PERSPECTIVE <p>Isolated unilateral phocomelia is a rare congenital disorder. Historically, the most famous association with consumption of thalidomide in first trimester of pregnancy resulted in babies born with limbs resembling flippers of a seal. Genetic inheritance in the form of autosomal recessive manner is also postulated. It can be sporadic, familial or syndromic.</p> <p>On account of the deadly COVID-19 pandemic, suspension of non-emergency services including OPDs in majority of the hospitals led to diversion of resources for combatting emergency medical care. This temporary pause and containment was detrimental to non-COVID patients. We present a rare case of unilateral phocomelia where lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in denial of medical termination of pregnancy (MTP).</p> Avir Sarkar Snigdha Kumari Seema Sheokand Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 4 9 10.32553/ijmsdr.v4i9.674 EVALUATION OF EFFECT OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS ON THE SHADE OF THE BLEACHED ENAMEL USING SPECTROPHOTOMETRY <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The bleached enamel surface requires application of antioxidant as there will be continuous release of free oxygen radicals. It would be beneficial if remineralizing agent which is recommended after bleaching also provides an antioxidant therapy. The natural antioxidants are colored. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of natural antioxidants on the shade of the bleached enamel.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Thirty single rooted maxillary anterior teeth were selected for the study. For all the samples middle third portion of the labial surface of the teeth was standardized using computerized cellophane stickers. Bleaching was carried out with 22% Carbamide peroxide gel (Philips Zoom Nite White). Based on the type of antioxidant solution application, samples were divided into three groups of ten samples each. <strong>Group I </strong>control (n=10) <strong>Group-II </strong>(n=10) 10% wheat grass solution (Sresta natural Bio products, India) <strong>Group-III </strong>(n=10) 5% grape seed extract (Zenith nutrition, Medizen Labs Pvt.Ltd, India). L, a, b values were recorded with spectrophotometry (Vita Zahnfabrik H. RauterGmbH &amp; Co. KG,Bad Sackingen, Germany) thrice for each sample at the three respective time periods i.e at baseline, after bleaching and after antioxidant application.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> ΔE values were subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA with p&gt;0.05 and the results were tabulated. It was observed that there was statistical insignificant difference between the groups with a p value of 0.295(p&gt;0.05). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The antioxidants 5% grape seed extract and 10% wheat grass extract did not affect the shade of the bleached enamel.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> tooth bleaching, antioxidant, shade, spectrophotometry</p> Lakshmi Sowjanya B Gnana Sindhu Dutta Girija. S. Sajjan Madhu Varma K Kalyan Satish R Praveen Dalavai Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 4 9 10.32553/ijmsdr.v4i9.675