International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research <p><strong>International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research</strong>&nbsp;<strong>(IJMSDR)</strong>&nbsp;is a online and print version cum open-access journal.&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR</strong>&nbsp;serves the world's research and scholarly communities and aims to be one of the largest publishers for professional and scholarly societies.&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR's</strong>&nbsp;journals maintain the highest standards of peer review, with some internationally-recognized editors serving on the editorial boards of&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR's&nbsp;</strong>journals.<strong>IJMSDR</strong>&nbsp;is not only a publisher, but also a hub for Scientists, Academician, and Research Scholars.&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR</strong>&nbsp;is a platform offering excellent resources for different research fields. It connects traditional publishing with the opportunities afforded by new technologies. Through publishing with&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR,</strong>your work can enjoy worldwide reach and you can get a quick response from your colleagues worldwide.&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR</strong>&nbsp;is a world’s most prestigious learned groups and publishers. Our goal is to bring high quality research work. Other than publications of journals &amp; Books, we also provide&nbsp;some subsidiary Products, Tools, Technology and Services like Thesis, Dissertation Project formatting and publishing etc.&nbsp;</p> <p>These&nbsp;scholarly open access medical journals&nbsp;aim to contribute to the progress and application of scientific discoveries, by providing free access to the research information.&nbsp;The published work reaches the general public and the scientific community immediately after publication, thus providing higher citation rates for the author.&nbsp;</p> IJMSDR en-US International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2589-7837 POTENTIAL TREATMENT OPTION FOR COVID 19 RELATED ANOSMIA - CHAMOMILE (MATRRICARIA CHAMOMILLA) EXTRACT NASAL IRRIGATION - A LITERATURE REVIEW. <p>Corona virus or Covid-19 infection that has rapidly evolved into a global pandemic shortly after its emergence in China in December 2019, demands smart, preventive and treatment recommendations especially related to its early onset symptoms. Anosmia, has now been identified among one of the earliest presenting symptoms in Covid-19 patients. Reports of anosmia in otherwise asymptomatic persons have led to interest in this sign as a potential early indicator of this disease Medical publications about anosmia with COVID-19 are still uncertain of its causative mechanism.</p> <p>The aim of this review is to provide literature review, as well as evidence-based recommendations for the management of patients with COVID-19 related anosmia, using Chamomile (Matrricaria chamomilla) extract nasal irrigation.</p> <p>Extensive database search from PubMed, Cochrane library, and Web of science, gray literature searches from Google Scholar, WHO and Traditional Persian Medicine textbook search such as Makhzan al Adwiyehe was performed.</p> <p>To support the literature, 8 most recent articles published in current year including systematic reviews and meta-analysis as well as clinical trial studies were finally selected to see the effectiveness of Chamomile in treatment of various symptoms of Covid-19.</p> <p>Chamomile (Matrricaria chamomilla) extract based on its pigenin and Luteolin (causing reduction of leukocyte infiltration), a-Bisabolol (which has anti-inflammatory role), Chamazulene (that provides anti-inflammatory and antipyretic role), Guaiazulene (antipyretic), Matricin (Anti-inflammatory role) and other appreciated roles mentioned in this study may serve as a promising treatment for Covid-19 induced anosmia, especially when used as nasal irrigation.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Chamomile, Covid-19 related Anosmia, Babouneh, loss of smell.</p> Haider, Romella Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 5 1 10.32553/ijmsdr.v5i1.738 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEPRESSION & DIABETIC DISTRESS IN ELDERLY TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS: A STUDY CONDUCTED AT COMMUNITY LEVEL <p><strong>Background</strong>: Depression is common psychiatric illness found in chronic diseases. Diabetes is chronic multi system involvement diseases with associated diabetic distress and depressive symptoms. Patient with diabetes and Depressive disorder has worse health outcome and higher morbidity as well as mortality. Diabetic patients experience some emotional feelings like guilt, denial, stress due to being diabetic and burden of self-care and management in diabetic patients. Depression affecting the treatment modality in diabetics and which led to aggravation of diabetic symptom and so the depression. <strong>Objective</strong>: To estimate relationship between depression and diabetic distress in elderly type 2 diabetic patients in Angarpathra hospital, Dhanbad district, Jharkhand, India. <strong>Material and Method</strong>: Study is conducted in 150 diabetic patients in rural areas. Demographic, clinical and diabetes related information collected by structured questionnaire. Depression is assessed using PHQ-9(patient health questionnaire).This is standardized questionnaire developed in United States and validated in Indian population. <strong>Results</strong>: Depression prevalence in diabetics patients in community is found to be 66 % (mild in 29.3, moderate in 18%, moderately severe 11.3%, severe&nbsp; in 7.3%).</p> Jai Prakash Rai Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 5 1 10.32553/ijmsdr.v5i1.736 MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOME IN BORDERLINE OLIGOHYDRAMNIOS: A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Amniotic fluid index (AFI) between 5.1 to 8 is termed as borderline oligohydramnios. Oligohydramnios has been linked with perinatal morbidity and mortality, however there are paucity of data on the effect of outcome of pregnancy among the isolated borderline oligohydramnios. This study studied the outcome of borderline oligohydramnios.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Pregnant women after 30 weeks period of gestation, with AFI 5-8 were included in the study. Pregnancy with hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, congenital anomalies in fetus, previous cesarean section or any uterine surgery were excluded from the study. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>140 pregnancy were enrolled. The mean age(SD) of study population was 24.7(4.0) years. 60%. The mean(SD) gestational age at the presentation was 38.8(1.6) weeks, with range from 35.3 weeks to 42.5 weeks. Induction of labour was done in 80.2%, normal delivery was possible only in 42.1%. Meconium-stained liquor was present in 27.1%. The most common indication of cesarean section was Non-reactive Non-Stress Test (NRNST) among 51.9%. Postpartum Haemorrhage(PPH) was observed in 11.4%. There was no perinatal depression, the mean(SD) of birth weight was 2.9(0.4) kgs. 6.4% of the cases required nursery admission, among them the common causes of nursery admission were neonatal sepsis (45%) and various causes of respiratory-distress (55%. There was no neonatal or maternal death.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Borderline oligohydramnios was more among nulliparous with higher rate of caesarean section. However, adverse outcome like PPH, neonatal infection and respiratory distress are less frequent findings and there was no perinatal mortality.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Borderline oligohydramnios, perinatal, maternal, neonatal, outcome.</p> Punita Yadav Tulsa Basnet Shankar Prasad Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2021-01-09 2021-01-09 5 1 10.32553/ijmsdr.v5i1.735 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH WORSENING OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS. <p><strong>Background: </strong>The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for developing more severe pancreatitis, including moderately severe (MSAP) and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), in patients admitted with mild acute pancreatitis (MAP).</p> <p><strong>Material/Methods: </strong>This was a hospital based retrospective and prospective study conducted in the Department of Gastroentrology, SKIMS Soura,Srinagar, Kashmir for a period of 2 years w.e.f<em>. </em>September 2017 to September 2019&nbsp; on patients of all age groups with clinical/Laboratory/imaging&nbsp; findings suggestive of acute pancreatitis. The protocol of the study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee. Patients admitted with MAP to our hospital were included and prospectively evaluated. Possible risk factors for developing MSAP or SAP were Evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Risk factors like BMI &gt;25kg/m<sup>2</sup> was observed in 61 (19.3%) patients with mild pancreatitis and 142 (42.5%) patients with moderate to severe pancreatitis. Waist circumference &gt;100cm was observed in 23 (7.3%) and 129 (38.6%) patients of mild and moderate to severe pancreatitis. High blood sugar &gt;200mg/dl was observed in 37 (11.7%) patients with mild pancreatitis and 152 (45.2%) patients with moderate to severe pancreatitis. 27 (8.5%) and 167 (50%) patients of mild and moderate to severe pancreatitis had hematocrit &gt;44 whereas 13 (4.1%) patients with mild pancreatitis and 140 (41.9%) patients with moderate to severe pancreatitis had CRP &gt;150mg/dl.</p> <p>This table concluded that there is statistically significant association between high BMI &gt;25 Kg/m<sup>2</sup>, waist circumference &gt;100 cm, high blood sugar &gt;200 mg /dl, hematocrit &gt;44, CRP &gt;150 mg/d and worsening of AP.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Significant risk factors for developing MSAP or SAP in patients admitted with MAP included BMI (≥25 kg/m<sup>2</sup>), APACHE-II (≥5), and blood glucose level on admission (&gt;11.1 mmol/L). These factors should be used in the prediction of more severe pancreatitis in patients admitted with MAP.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong>Obesity, Pancreatitis, Risk Factors</p> Neeraj Dhar Syed Mushfiq Shafi Jaswinder Singh G.M. Gulzar Altaf Hussain Shah Mushtaq Ahmad Khan Sajad Hamid Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2021-01-17 2021-01-17 5 1 10.32553/ijmsdr.v5i1.742 TO COMPARE AND EVALUATE THE CYCLIC FATIGUE RESISTANCE OF THREE NITI ROTARY FILE SYSTEM-AN INVITRO STUDY <p><strong>Aim:</strong>&nbsp; To compare and evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance of three NiTi rotary file system</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Three NiTi rotary system (Hyflex EDM, Protaper Gold and One curve) were used in study . All files were tested in simulated constructed apparatus with angle of curvature 60<sup>o </sup>and radius of curvature 5mm.The rotary files were used in endomotor X smart (Densply) .All the instruments were utilized until fracture occurred, and then the number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated. The data were analyzed statistically using Annova test. The statistical significance level was set at P &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> HEDM instruments had the highest cyclic fatigue resistance among all the other instruments (P &lt; 0.05). The one curve instruments had a significantly higher fatigue resistance than the Protaper gold instruments (P &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was found that the cyclic fatigue resistance was higher for the HEDM instruments than for the, Protaper gold and one curve instruments.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cyclic fatigue resistance, heat‑treated NiTi instruments, HyFlex EDM, OneCurve</p> Anil K Tomer Vanita Verma Nitin Bhateja Pudu Tirupathi Sushma Kumari Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2021-01-17 2021-01-17 5 1 10.32553/ijmsdr.v5i1.743 CAREGIVERS BURDEN OF PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL USE DISORDER: COMPARISON BETWEEN SPOUSE & OTHER CAREGIVERS <p><strong>Background: </strong>Caregivers are individuals who carry the responsibility for the physical and emotional needs of another, who is incapable of self-care. Burden is described by the presence of issues, difficulties, or adverse events which affect the lives of the psychiatric patient’s family &nbsp;or friends in other words their caregivers. Identification of caregivers who are burdened by the caregiving experience is significant for the prevention of problems associated with caregiving especially in case of spouses. The Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI), a well-known measure of care giving burden with a distinct domain structure is used to study burden of the caregivers of patients with alcohol use disorder.</p> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Alcohol&nbsp;dependency&nbsp;is&nbsp;a&nbsp;"family&nbsp;disease."&nbsp;Alcohol&nbsp;dependence&nbsp;affects&nbsp;both&nbsp;the&nbsp;person&nbsp;&amp; others&nbsp;around&nbsp;them in&nbsp;terms&nbsp;of&nbsp;jobs and social instability. The other aspects affecting the Family includes&nbsp;physical&nbsp;and&nbsp;emotional&nbsp;pain and financial&nbsp;strain&nbsp;that&nbsp;have&nbsp;a&nbsp;major&nbsp;effect&nbsp;on&nbsp;the&nbsp;lives&nbsp;o&nbsp;significant&nbsp;others.</p> <p>A&nbsp;significant&nbsp;research&nbsp;emphasis&nbsp;remains&nbsp;on&nbsp;the&nbsp;mental&nbsp;and&nbsp;physical&nbsp;health&nbsp;of&nbsp;caregivers,&nbsp;theirsocial&nbsp;support&nbsp;system,&nbsp;coping&nbsp;mechanisms,&nbsp;and&nbsp;levels&nbsp;of&nbsp;stress&nbsp;and&nbsp;burden.&nbsp;The&nbsp;purpose&nbsp;of&nbsp;this&nbsp;study&nbsp;is&nbsp;to&nbsp;analyse&nbsp;and&nbsp;compare&nbsp;the&nbsp;burden&nbsp;of&nbsp;patients&nbsp;with&nbsp;alcohol&nbsp;use&nbsp;disorder&nbsp;using&nbsp;CBI&nbsp;between&nbsp;spouses&nbsp;and&nbsp;other&nbsp;caregivers</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 100 primary caregivers of patients with alcohol use disorder completed survey questionnaires. Caregiving burden was measured by the CBI. The diagnosis of alcohol use disorder was made in accordance to the DSM 5 criteria.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Severe Burden was seen in the spouse caregivers as compared to other relations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings provide evidence that spouse of patients with alcohol use disorder experienced severe burden as compared to others.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Alcohol use disorder, Caregivers, Zarit Burden Inventory, Severity of burden</p> Atul Bhardwaj Vaibhav Dubey Mitali Soni Loya Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2021-01-17 2021-01-17 5 1 10.32553/ijmsdr.v5i1.745 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF TENSILE BOND STRENGTH OF ENDODONTIC SEALERS TO DENTIN AND GUTTA PERCHA - AN IN-VITRO STUDY <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The root canal therapy is done with the intention to seal it off from any fluid leaks, thus enhancing the longevity of the therapy. The seal between the obturating material and the dentinal walls of the root surface is done by the endodontic sealer. The sealer is designed in such a way that it has to mould itself with the curves and follow the shapes of the root dentinal wall.</p> <p><strong>Aims</strong>: To compare in-vitro the tensile bond strength of four different endodontic sealers to root dentin and Gutterpercha.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Thirty six single ‑ rooted canine and premolar teeth with total apical formation were selected. Working length was determined after the crown portion was cut. BMP was done. Teeth were grouped as Group Ⅰ: MTA‑ based sealer, Group Ⅱ: Bioceramic Sealer, Group Ⅲ: Calcium based sealer, Group Ⅳ: Epoxy resin based (AH Plus sealer). Sealers were manipulated according to the manufacturer protocol. Obtuartion was done using 4% gutta ‑ percha. Later tensile strength test was done on the root slices of 2 mm thickness using universal testing machine. 6 mm in diameter Aluminum cylinders, were stabilized on the gutta–percha with small amounts of wax and were filled with one of the sealers. After setting each sealer, the drops of wax were removed and the tensile bond strengths of all the samples were measured using universal testing machine. The data was analysed using Tukey tests and ANOVA.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Among the 4 groups highest bond strength was found in Group Ⅱ (BioRootTMRCS) (P &lt; 0.05) and the least was Group Ⅰ (MTA Fill apex).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Bioceramic sealer’s tensile bond strength was highest followed by AH26, Sealapex and MTA‑ based sealer.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Bond strength; BioRoot TMRCS Sealer; MTA Fill apex; AH Plus Sealer, Sealapex, tensile strength.</p> Omkar Eswara Babu Danda Lakshman Kumar CH Afroz Kalmee Syed Dasarathi A Haranath Danda Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2021-01-17 2021-01-17 5 1 10.32553/ijmsdr.v5i1.739 FIBROUS ANKYLOSIS OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT: PRESENTING WITH SUDDEN ONSET COMPLETE INABILITY TO OPEN MOUTH. <p>The temporomandibular joint makes it possible to open and close your mouth, as involving chewing, swallowing, speaking, and yawning activity. &nbsp;Ankylosis of the Temporomandibular joint which includes partial or complete fusion of the joint with resulting restricted opening of mouth, restricted mandibular movements (hypomobility) with deviation to the affected side on opening of the mouth.&nbsp; The pathology is multifactorial and restoration of function usually involves surgical intervention and dependence on the exact pathology situated at the root of pons.&nbsp; It is essential to evaluate the underlying pathology, its degree for proper planning of surgery and follow-up.&nbsp; 3-D CT scan of facial bones provide a reliable and consistent diagnosis and evaluation for temporomandibular joint ankylosis.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: TMJ, ankylosis, 3-D CT scan, facial asymmetry.</p> Rupesh Kumar Namdev Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2021-01-17 2021-01-17 5 1 10.32553/ijmsdr.v5i1.740 PREVALENCE OF NEPHROPATHY AND ITS PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN A CENTRAL INDIAN POPULATION <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hyperglycemia is an important risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy. In the initial stages ie micro albuminuria the DKD is clinically detectable and can even be reversed. Hence early screening of diabetic patients is important. Hence the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of nephropathy in a cross section of diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The Aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of nephropathy in recently detected diabetic patients by evaluating microalbuminuria, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of 120 patients above 18 years were included in the study and were divided into three groups according to age and were further divided into three groups as per the duration of diseases Patients were again divided into two groups according to the gender. The GFR was calculated as per the MDRD formula and the patients were divided further as per the stage of CKD. Serum Creatinine levels were calculated and the variables associated with CKD were adjusted by Logistic Regression.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Our results suggests that 41.25% of subjects were in mild to severe nephropathy out of which 16.25 % were within the three years of diagnosis, thus suggesting the role of early and routine investigation in diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hence the role of life style is clearly emphasized by our results. Although when the variables were adjusted with the logistic regression the occupation was not that significant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Albuminuria, Diabetes mellitus (DM), Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD), Diabetic nephropathy (DN), Serum Creatinine.</p> Suresh Kumar Sethi Rajesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research 2021-01-21 2021-01-21 5 1 10.32553/ijmsdr.v5i1.749