International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research <p><strong>International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research</strong>&nbsp;<strong>(IJMSDR)</strong>&nbsp;is a online and print version cum open-access journal.&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR</strong>&nbsp;serves the world's research and scholarly communities and aims to be one of the largest publishers for professional and scholarly societies.&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR's</strong>&nbsp;journals maintain the highest standards of peer review, with some internationally-recognized editors serving on the editorial boards of&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR's&nbsp;</strong>journals.<strong>IJMSDR</strong>&nbsp;is not only a publisher, but also a hub for Scientists, Academician, and Research Scholars.&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR</strong>&nbsp;is a platform offering excellent resources for different research fields. It connects traditional publishing with the opportunities afforded by new technologies. Through publishing with&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR,</strong>your work can enjoy worldwide reach and you can get a quick response from your colleagues worldwide.&nbsp;<strong>IJMSDR</strong>&nbsp;is a world’s most prestigious learned groups and publishers. Our goal is to bring high quality research work. Other than publications of journals &amp; Books, we also provide&nbsp;some subsidiary Products, Tools, Technology and Services like Thesis, Dissertation Project formatting and publishing etc.&nbsp;</p> <p>These&nbsp;scholarly open access medical journals&nbsp;aim to contribute to the progress and application of scientific discoveries, by providing free access to the research information.&nbsp;The published work reaches the general public and the scientific community immediately after publication, thus providing higher citation rates for the author.&nbsp;</p> en-US (Publisher) (P Gupta) Sat, 05 Jun 2021 06:20:18 +0000 OJS 60 PREVALENCE OF WORK RELATED NECK PAIN IN GIRL PHYSIOTHERAPY STUDENTS OF AMRITSAR <p>Neck pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders in physical therapists, especially the females. In the present study, an attempt has been made to search the prevalence of neck pain in girl physiotherapy students of Amritsar. A total of purposively selected 194 under- and post-graduate girl physiotherapy students aged 18-26 years from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar were selected for the present cross-sectional study. Modified Nordic Questionnaire and Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire were applied to gather the information. Standard statistical analyses were also done. In results, the prevalence of neck pain was found as 20.10% in girl physiotherapy students of Amritsar with the maximum prevalence (76.92%) in the BMI category of normal weight, gradual onset (53.84%) of pain in majority cases, the maximum (56.41%) 1-7 days of time of neck trouble during last 12 month, with less medication (29.41%) for their neck pain during last one year, with 1-7 days time (55.88%) when &nbsp;neck trouble had prevented them from doing their normal work during the last one year, and the younger students had higher disability index (279.78; 14.11%) than their older counterparts (254.13; 13.32%). It could be concluded that neck pain should be taken care adequately in the early stages of their profession.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Neck pain, Modified Nordic Questionnaire, Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire, Girl physiotherapy students.</p> Priyanka Gohere, Shyamal Koley Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research Sat, 05 Jun 2021 06:26:43 +0000 MICRO BIOLOGY OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE- A REVIEW <p>Periodontal diseases are inflammatory and destructive diseases of the dentogingival complex associated with specific periodontal pathogens inhabiting periodontal pockets. Periodontal diseases lead to damage of the periodontal tissues supporting the teeth (bone and connective tissue) and affect the quality of life of the affected individuals: poor alimentation, tooth loss, social and financial problems. Although it is generally considered that the disease has multifactorial etiology, data show that some specific Gram-negative microorganisms in the subgingival plaque biofilm play a major role in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia form a consortium in the subgingival biofilm and are regarded as the principal periodontopathogenic bacteria. Other microorganisms that have been implicated as predominant species in the disease process are: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Campylobacter rectus, Peptostreptococcus migros, Eikenella corrodens. In periodontitis, the initiation of the disease is the colonization of the tissues by these pathogenic species. The next step is bacterial invasion or invasion by pathogenic products into the periodontal tissues, interactions of bacteria or their substances with host cells, and this directly/indirectly causes degradation of the periodontium, resulting in tissue destruction.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> periodontal disease, periodontal pathogens, microbiology.</p> Shilpa Jaryal, Gurpreet Kaur, Jageer Chinna, Jannat Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research Sat, 05 Jun 2021 06:55:17 +0000 TWO DIFFERENT CASES OF STROKE IN YOUNG <p>We report two different cases of stroke in young.First one is, a vertebral artery dissection &nbsp;following &nbsp;ferris wheel ride at amusement park which emphasise the clinical history in early diagnosis of stroke in young.The other one is, a recurrent stroke in marfan syndrome &nbsp;associated with basilar invagination and &nbsp;isolated atrial septal aneurysym which is rare and has unique way of management.</p> Vedhanayagam N, Balasenthilkumaran M R, Balajisundaresan S, Balu AK, Suganya G Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research Thu, 10 Jun 2021 12:59:10 +0000 COMPARISON OF PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION AND NEUROMUSCULAR RE-EDUCATION WITH CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT AND HOME BASED EXERCISE PLAN ALONG WITH FACIAL NERVE STIMULATION FOR REDUCING FACIAL DISABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH BELL’S PALSY <p>The purpose of the present study was to compare the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and neuromuscular re-education with conventional treatment and home based exercise plan along with facial nerve stimulation for reducing facial disability in patients with Bell’s Palsy. In the present study, purposively selected 20 patients (both male and female) with Bell’s palsy with age group 20-70 years were considered. Further, the patients were allocated equally into two treatment groups. In Group-A, patients were treated with Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) and Neuromuscular Re-Education (NRE) along with interrupted galvanic stimulation, facial massage and home based exercises. In Group-B, patients received the treatment of interrupted galvanic stimulation and manual facial massage along with home based facial exercises program in front of mirror. The outcome measures included Facial Disability Index-Physical Function (FDI-PF), Facial Disability Index-Social Function (FDI-SF), Synkinesis Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) and Sunnybrook Facial Grading Scale (SFGS). In results. it was found that in pre-intervention condition, no significant differences were noted in FDI-PF, FDI-SF, SAQ and SFGS between these two groups. However, significant differences (p&lt;0.001) were observed in FDI-PF, FDI-SF and SFGS in post intervention condition between the patients treated in Group-A and Group-B. Statistically significant increase (p&lt;0.001) was found in FDI-PF and SFGS and significant decrease (p&lt;0.013-0.001) was found in FDI-SF and SAQ between pre- and post-intervention in Group-A. Statistically significant decrease (p&lt;0.003-0.001) was found in FDI-PF, FDI-SF, SAQ and SFGS between pre- and post-intervention in patients treated in Group-B. From the findings of the study it could be concluded the treatment protocol comprised of PNF and NRE along with interrupted galvanic stimulation, facial massage and home based exercises was more effective than only interrupted galvanic stimulation, facial massage and home based exercises in improving facial symmetry and reducing facial disability in patients with Bell’s palsy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Proprioceptive neuromuscular technique, Neuromuscular re-education technique, Interrupted galvanic stimulation, Facial massage, Home based exercises, Bell’s palsy, Facial disability, Synkinesis.</p> Hanisha Goyal, Shyamal Koley Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research Thu, 10 Jun 2021 13:17:22 +0000 ROLE OF PHYSIOTHERAPY IN PREVENTION OF COMPLICATIONS AFTER PARAPLEGIA AND QUADRIPLEGIA <p><sup>1</sup>Spinal cord injury is the most frequent and well- defined clinical condition that enterprise functional, physical and psychological impacts. Therefore, SCI patients experience serious medical complications that can profoundly influence patient’s identity. <sup>2</sup>The goal of rehabilitation and other treatment interventions for SCI patients is to enhance ADL activities, decrease morbidity, mortality rate and also help in achieving a fullfilling and active life after SCI. Acute medical complications after SCI is very common but chronic medical complications cause serious negative impact on SCI patients by disturbing their functional and independent life. Therefore, earlier diagnosis and proper treatment interventions play a vital role in limiting these medical complications and achieving independent and quality of life after SCI. in this paper, we review data about common medical complications and preventions in patients of SCI, including cardiovascular impairment, motor and sensory impairment, bladder and bowel dysfunction, osteoporosis and bone metabolism dysfunction, pressure sores, pain syndrome, DVT and pulmonary embolism, infections ( septicemia, pneumonia etc.), psychological and sexual dysfunctions. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of risk factors, signs, symptoms, prevention and treatment approaches for secondary long-term complications in patients with SCI.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>spinal cord injury, chronic complications, Management of complications, physical therapy, paraplegia and quadriplegia.</p> Kundu ZS , Vandana, Verma Vishal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research Thu, 10 Jun 2021 13:42:54 +0000 DUAL ROLE OF AUTOPHAGY IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE <p>Autophagy is a self-degradative process that is important for balancing sources of energy at critical times in development and in response to nutrient stress. &nbsp;The induction of autophagy has been shown to have both protective and pathological effects in periodontitis. Autophagy also plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded or aggregated proteins, clearing damaged organelles, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes, as well as eliminating intracellular pathogens. Thus, autophagy is generally thought of as a survival mechanism, although its deregulation has been linked to non-apoptotic cell death. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process essential for cellular homeostasis and human health. Autophagy provides a mechanism for the turnover of cellular organelles and proteins through a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway. It also participates in various biological processes, such as cellular differentiation, cell function, and defense against pathogens. In addition, autophagic dysfunction is associated with multiple diseases such as autoimmune disease, cancer, diabetes, and oral disease. &nbsp;Nowadays research has ascertained the role of autophagy in Periodontal disease, especially its role in the host defence against periodontal disease drivers. A bulk of research has recognized several pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals that can potentially modulate this kind of cell death and serve as useful therapies. However, further research is warranted in order to reach a clinical translation, which could be of help in the discovery of novel host modulation therapies for Periodontal disease.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Autophagy, Apoptosis, Micro autophagy, immune response, Periodontitis, Periodontal pathogens, Periapical lesion</p> Priyanka Muwal, Navneet Kaur, Gurpreet Kaur Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research Fri, 11 Jun 2021 08:48:28 +0000 RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF NIMOTUZUMAB VS CHEMOTHERAPY IN LOCALLY ADVANCED HEAD AND NECK SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA PATIENTS RECEIVING CONCURRENT RADIOTHERAPY <p><strong>Background: </strong>In advanced malignancies, it is important to ensure that the quality of life is not comprised, when treating the disease. Therfore there is immense need for the data on the QOL parameters for the newer agents/indications. In view of the paucity of data for the Nimotuzumab, we thought of conducting a retrospective data analysis in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This is a multi institutional, two arm retrospective data collection exercise done in subjects with head and neck cancer stage III or less receiving radical radiotherapy(IMRT) with either nimotuzumab or chemotherapy (weekly cisplatin) between 2015-2018 with three years follow up.&nbsp; Standard format for the QOL (a part of dissertation thesis by PG) was used for analysis along with demographics and outcome in terms of clinical data and survival.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: During the study period a total of 84 subjects were meeting the criteria for the study and the case records were retrived with 1:1 case/control (matched population) for stage, age and other variables. Response rate was higher in the Nimotuzumab arm (86% versus 81%; P=NS).. No differences were observed in median progression-free survival and overall survival. Nimotuzimab had better TWIST score of 653+238vs 508+173 (Mean+ SD) days and better overall QOL score improvement 4.6+1.5 vs 3.1+1.3 points(Mean+ SD)compared to the cisplatin arm</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The results indicate that, though more expensive, the Nimotuzumab scores over the conventional cisplatin (weekly) in terms of better response rates, Quality of life TWIST score and ease of administration. However retrospective nature of the data nd the subject selection bias remain a major challenge for this study, which can be addressed in future prospective trials.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>concurrent, nimotuzumab, chemotherapy , head and neck caners</p> Rakesh Sharma, Suresh Attili, Mallik Singaraju, Dattatreya Palanki Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research Fri, 11 Jun 2021 09:04:56 +0000 CORONAVIRUS- A REVIEW <p>Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a coronavirus. Coronaviruses are a group of enveloped viruses with nonsegmented, single-stranded, and positive-sense RNA genomes. Apart from infecting a variety of economically important vertebrates (such as pigs and chickens), six coronaviruses have been known to infect human hosts and cause respiratory diseases. Among them, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are zoonotic and highly pathogenic coronaviruses that have resulted in regional and global outbreaks Coronaviruses possess a distinctive morphology, the name being derived from the outer fringe, or corona‖ of embedded envelope protein. Members of the family Coronaviridae cause a broad spectrum of animal and human diseases. Uniquely, replication of the RNA genome proceeds through the generation of a nested set of viral mRNA molecules. Human coronavirus (HCoV) infection causes respiratory diseases with mild to severe outcomes. In the last 15 years, we have witnessed the emergence of two zoonotic, highly pathogenic HCoVs: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Replication of HCoV is regulated by a diversity of host factors and induces drastic alterations in cellular structure and physiology. In this review all (as we possible) information about Corona viruses are given.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Corona virus, respiratory, viruses, Hcov, host, RNA.</p> Shilpa Jaryal, Gurpreet Kaur, Jageer Chhina, Jannat Sharma, Shreen Mann Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research Fri, 11 Jun 2021 09:29:49 +0000 COMPARISION OF THE INCIDENCE OF POSTOPERATIVE PAIN AFTER USING TWO CONTINUOUS ROTARY FILE SYSTEM WITH CONVENTIONAL NEEDLE AND ULTRASONIC IRRIGATION IN SINGLE VISIT ENDODONTICS: AN INVIVO STUDY <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of postoperative pain after using protaper gold (Dentsply Maillefer) and Neoendo (Orikam) rotary file system with conventional needle and ultrasonic irrigation system in single visit endodontics.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Sixty patients requiring endodontic therapy were included in this study and divided into four groups, each group consisting of 15 patients. Group I (n = 15), was instrumented using ProTaper Gold followed by needle (Neoendo side vent) irrigation using 2 ml 3% sodium hypochlorite. In Group II, teeth were instrumented using ProTaper Gold followed by 3% sodium hypochlorite irrigant and activated using Endoactivator (Orikam Ultra X)&nbsp; for 30 seconds. In Group III (n = 15), teeth were instrumented using Neoendo (Orikam) rotary file system followed by conventional needle irrigation using 3% sodium hypochlorite as mentioned in Group I. In Group IV&nbsp; (n = 15), teeth were instrumented using Neoendo rotary file system followed by 3% sodium hypochlorite irrigant which were activated using Endoactivator for 30 seconds as mentioned in Group II. Each root canal will be obturated using the single cone technique using Zinc oxide sealer. Postoperative pain response of patients was evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS) score. <strong>Results: </strong>For VAS pain scores, a statistically significant difference was found between the PTG and Neo Endo files (p= 0.000). Group II showed the least incidence of pain for a follow up period of one week followed by Group I and Group IV. Group III showed the highest incidence of pain among the four group. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Within the limitations of this study, we may conclude that the PTG system along with the Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation System&nbsp; is a technique that is able to minimize the risk of postoperative pain after single visit root canal therapy compared to the other technique used in this study. However, all the techniques used in this study significantly reduced the post-operative pain within a time interval of one week.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Protaper Gold, Neo Endo Files, Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation, Side Vent Needle, Controlled Memory Files</p> K Naveen Kumar, L Krishna Prasada, K Mohammed Safeer Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research Sat, 12 Jun 2021 12:45:14 +0000 EFFICACY OF TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION AND THERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM CHRONIC CERVICAL PAIN <p>The purpose of the present study was to search to search the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and therapeutic ultrasound in patients suffering from chronic cervical pain. To fulfill the purpose, A total of randomly selected 30 patients with chronic cervical pain aged 20-70 years were selected from the Physiotherapy Center of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar for the present study. The patients were further randomly divided into two groups, in Group-A, patients were treated with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS), Therapeutic Ultrasound (TUS), followed &nbsp;by hot pack, massage, therapeutic exercises (shoulder circumduction, pectoral stretching), cervical stretching, cervical isometrics with the recommendation for daily living activities, whereas, in Group-B, the patient s were treated only with hot pack, massage, therapeutic exercises (shoulder circumduction, pectoral stretching), cervical stretching and cervical isometrics with the recommendation for daily living activities.</p> <p>The outcome measures were Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain, Neck Pain Visual Disability Index (NDI) for disability. The results revealed statistically significant decrease (p&lt;0.001) both in NDI and VAS in patients with cervical pain between pre- and post-intervention in the</p> <p>&nbsp;Group-A and B, but Group-A showed significantly superior effects both in NDI (82.88% decrement) and VAS (71.62% decrement) than Group-B. In conclusion, it might be stated that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and therapeutic ultrasound were found more effective than conventional physiotherapeutic techniques in relieving pain intensity and disability in patients with chronic cervical pain.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, Therapeutic Ultrasound, Patients with Chronic Cervical Pain.</p> Meenakshi Sharma, Shyamal Koley Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research Sat, 12 Jun 2021 13:43:15 +0000 LOW BACK PAIN AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN CUTTACK, ODISHA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY <p>The purpose of the present study was to search the prevalence of low back pain and its associated factors in secondary school teachers of Cuttack, Odisha. For this purpose, 457 secondary school’s teachers aged 26-60 years were contacted from various schools of Cuttack city, of those 191 teachers (76 male and 115 female) were confirmed for low back pain by self- informative questionnaire. Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Pain Questionnaire and a self-constructed questionnaire were applied to measure the socio-demographic and economic characteristics of the participants. The results revealed that the overall prevalence of LBP in the last 12 months among secondary school teachers was 41.79%, of those female teachers (60.20%) were affected more than their male counterparts. Some factors, such as excessive work load, sleeping disturbance (especially in female teachers), prolonged standing in classroom, physical inactivity affected adversely towards their health and wellbeing causing LBP in them. It was also found that the maximum male (75.00%) and female (58.26%) teachers had the minimum disability in Oswestry Disability Index category. It might be concluded that the addressing work-related and individual factors would be essential to decrease the magnitude of the problem.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Low back pain, Prevalence, Associated factors, Secondary school teachers of Cuttack, Odisha.</p> Swatisuman Behera, Shyamal Koley Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Medical Science And Diagnosis Research Tue, 22 Jun 2021 05:59:12 +0000