A review on Helicobacter pylori Infection
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was first identified in 1982 by the Australian physicians Barry Marshall and Robin Warren. Helicobacter pylori is also known as Campylobacter pylori. It is a gram-negative, micro-aerophilic, spiral (helical) bacterium usually found in the stomach. H. pylori infection is one of the most common and chronic bacterial infection, affecting approximately half of the world's population. Peptic ulcer disease, gastric ulcers, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer all are linked to H. pylori. There are various diagnostic procedures to detect H. pylori infection and the choice of one approach over another is based on a number of considerations including accessibility, benefits and drawbacks of each method, cost, and the age of the patients. When H. pylori infection is diagnosed, doctor determines the therapy on the basis of patient's clinical status. Generally, eradication of H. pylori is recommended for treatment and prevention of the infection. In most of the cases H. pylori infections are cured with triple therapy. Moreover, quadruple therapies, sequential therapies and concomitant therapies have been developed as major alternative options to treat H. pylori infection. In this review pathophysiology, prevalence, transmission, clinical sign & symptoms, risk factors, and diagnostic techniques used to detect H. pylori infection as well as H. pylori eradication therapy regimens are discussed.
Keywords: Diagnosis, Helicobacter pylori, Treatment, Hybrid therapy, Concomitant therapy, Sequential therapy