CYTOKINES AND IMMUNOGLOBULIN G RESPONSE IN CATTLE WITH ACCORDED SETARIA DIGITATA INFECTION: A RESEARCH PROSPECTIVE STUDY
Background: Setaria digitata is a filarial parasite that exists in peritoneal cavity of cattle. This study aims to evaluate cytokine mediators like Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses in spontaneously S. digitata infected and non-infected cattle, with emphasis on choosing the best antigen that could be used in diagnosis of such filarial infection.
Materials and Methods: A total of 95 cattle were included in this study. Two S. digitata antigens: Crude Somatic Antigen (CSS) and Excretory Secretory antigen (ESS) of S. digitata were prepared. They were evaluated in diagnosis of the infection using indirect ELISA and electrophoretically characterized through sodium dodecyl sulphate poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting technique.
Results: The results indicated that both TNF-α and IL-4 in the serum of infected cattle were significantly higher compared with the non-infected group at p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. However, the IL-4 level of infected cattle was significantly higher than that of TNF-α (P<0.01). Apparent prevalence, specificity and positive predictive values (96.55%, 100%, and 100% each) of CSS showed higher diagnostic accuracy than that of ESS. In addition, electrophoretic protein profile and IgG reactivity of CSS antigen via Western Blot, presented a prominent reactive protein band at 28 kDa.
Conclusion:It was concluded that the CSS antigen was the best antigen that could be used in sero diagnosis of S. digitata infection. The cytokine responses were explored in order to differentiate infected from non-infected cattle.
Keywords: Cytokines, Diagnosis, Immunoglobulin ,Setaria digitata, Markers, Interleukins
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