ETIOLOGY AND PREVALENCE OF HOSPITAL ACQUIRED DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN
Introduction: Hospital-acquired diarrhea (HAD), among hospitalized children is responsible for increased costs and prolonged hospital stay and also important cause of morbidity and mortality. Especially in children Hospital-acquired diarrhea an important hazard in developed and developing countries occurring about 2–32% of admitted in general medicine wards. Children under the age of three years in developing countries experience on an average of three time of diarrhea every year. On each and every episode of diarrhea, it contributes deprivation to significant nutrition which is necessary for child growth. Patients in the hospital stay may face the additional risk of acquiring infections due to contact with other patients, contaminated hospital surfaces or healthcare workers and in low-income hospitals infection control is often less meticulous which could be higher risk.
Aim: The main objective is to study the etiology and prevelance of hospital acquired diarrhea in children.
Material and methods: In this study total 100 patients were included with the age between 1 year old to 15 years old who were admitted to the paediatric ward for reasons other than diarrhoea and stayed for more than 3 days. Detail history from all the patients were noted including laboratory investigation. From each and every patient stool sample were collected in disposable clean containers and send to microbiology laboratory for processed. Several diagnostic laboratory tests were done for the detection of viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal agents. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were done for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxins and latex agglutination test were done for detection of human rotavirus antigen.
Result: In this study total 100 hospitalized children between the ages 1 to 15 years old were examined. Out of these 82 children (82%) were diagnosed as hospital acquired diarrhea. out of total 100 patients majority mere male children(63%) and followed by female(37%) children. Out of total 100 children, children with the age group 1-4 years showed maximum (38%) of hospital acquired diarrhea followed by 4-8 years (29%), 8-12 years (18%) and 12-16 years(15%) respectively. Conclusions: This study also revealed a high prevalence of hospital acquired diarrhea our area and the infectious causes were more than the non-infectious causes, with bacterial predominance among the infectious agents. Therefore this study recommends routine general stool examination, stool culture/sensitivity for detection for microbial infection and Cl. difficile detection by ELISA methods for all patients with hospital acquired diarrhea to identify the causative agent. Hence, healthcare strategy and campaign should be focused on specific hospital staff and community area must be available.
Keywords: Children, Hospital acquired diarrhea, Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli(EPEC)